L - M
La Foncée, or Fromage de Pau
Semidry and mellow. While lager means merely "to store," there is more than a subtle suggestion of lager beer here.
Laguiole, Fromage de, and Guiole
An ancient Cantal type said to have flourished since the Roman occupation. Many consider Laguiole superior to Cantal. It is in full season from November to May.
Lamothe-Bougon, La Mothe St. Heray
Goat cheese made from May to November.
White; crumbly; sharp; a good Welsh Rabbit cheese if you can get it. It is more like Cheshire than Cheddar. This most popular variety in the north of England is turned out best at Fylde, near the Irish Sea. It is a curiosity in manufacture, for often the curds used are of different ages, and this is accountable for a loose, friable texture. Deep orange in color.
Land-l-kas, or Güssing
Skim-milker, similar to U.S. Brick. Square loaves, four to eight pounds.
A Colorado Blue with an excellent reputation, though it can hardly compete with Roquefort.
Semihard; fermented whole milk; farm-made; full-flavored, high-smelling Limburger type, similar to Maroilles. Ancient of days, said to have been made since the time of the Merovingian kings. Cylindrical, five by eight inches, they weigh one and a half to two pounds. Consumed mostly at home.
Reindeer milk. Resembles hard Swiss. Of unusual shape, both round and flat, so a cross-section looks like a dumbbell with angular ends.
Soft; creamy; mellow, made and named after the North Mexico city.
A kind of Maroilles.
Trade name for a soft, water-buffalo product as creamy as Camembert.
Made from November to July.
Leaf see Tschil.
Leather, Leder, or Holstein Dairy
A skim-milker with five to ten percent buttermilk, all from the great milch cows up near Denmark in Schleswig-Holstein. A technical point in its making is that it's "broken up with a harp or a stirring stick and stirred with a Danish stirrer."
Dessert cottage cheese often served with yogurt.
Lecco, Formaggini di
Soft; cow or goat; round dessert variety; representative of a cheese family as big as the human family of most Italians.
Lees see Appenzeller, Festive, No. II.
Half-dried; small; salted; peppered and sharp. The salt and pepper make it unusual, though not as peppery as Italian Pepato.
Hard; shallow; flat millstone of Cheddar-like cheese weighing forty pounds. Dark orange and mild to red and strong, according to age. With Wiltshire and Warwickshire it belongs to the Derbyshire type.
An ancient saying is: "Leicester cheese and water cress were just made for each other."
Leidsche Kaas see Leyden.
A kind of Pecorino.
Notable because it's a natural cheese in a mob of modern processed.
Goat; in season from February to September and not eaten in fall or winter months.
Curious because the sheep's milk that makes it is milked directly into a sack of skin. It is made in the usual way, rennet added, curd broken up, whey drained off, curd put into forms and pressed lightly. But after that it is wrapped in leaves and ropes of grass. After curing two weeks in the leaves, they are discarded, the cheese salted and wrapped up in leaves again for another ripening period.
The use of a skin sack again points the association of cheese and wine in a region where wine is still drunk from skin bags with nozzles, as in many wild and mountainous parts.
Les Petits Bressans
Small goat cheeses named from food-famous Bresse, of the plump pullets, and often stimulated with brandy before being wrapped in fresh vine leaves, like Les Petits Banons.
Les Petits Fromages see Petits Fromages and Thiviers.
Name given to two entirely different varieties:
I. Vacherin à la Main
II. Vacherin Fondu. (See Vacherin.)
A goat cheese in season from May to December.
Leyden, Komijne Kaas, Caraway Cheese
Semihard, tangy with caraway. Similar Delft. There are two kinds of Leyden that might be called Farm Fat and Factory Thin, for those made on the farms contain 30 to 35% fat, against 20% in the factory product.
Cream cheese that keeps two to three weeks. This is in England, where there is much less refrigeration than in the U.S.A., and that's a big break for most natural cheeses.
Semisoft; aromatic; sharp.
Lipta, Liptauer, Liptoiu
A classic mixture with condiments, especially the great peppers from which the world's best paprika is made. Liptauer is the regional name for Brinza, as well, and it's made in the same manner, of sheep milk and sometimes cow. Salty and spready, somewhat oily, as most sheep-milkers are. A fairly sharp taste with a suggestion of sour milk. It is sold in various containers and known as "pickled cheese."
Soft; sheep; white; mild and milky taste. A close relative of both Liptauer and Brinza.
Processed cheese with a cute name, wrapped up both plain and smoky, to "slice and serve for cheese trays, mash or whip for spreading," but no matter how you slice, mash and whip it, it's still processed.
Soft paste, colored with annatto-brown or deep red (also, uncommonly, fresh and white). It has the advantage over Camembert, made in the same region, in that it may be manufactured during the summer months when skim milk is plentiful and cheap. It is formed in cylinders, six by two inches, and ripened several months in the even temperature of caves, to be eaten at its best only in January, February and March. By June and afterward it should be avoided. Similar to Mignot II. Early in the process of making, after ripening ten to twelve days, the cheeses are wrapped in fresh laiche leaves, both to give flavor and help hold in the ammonia and other essentials for making a strong, piquant Livarot.
A popular hand cheese. A most unusual variety because the cheese itself is red, not the rind.
A brand of Pecorino differing slightly from Bomano Pecorino.
Lodigiano, or Lombardo
Sharp; fragrant; sometimes slightly bitter; yellow. Cylindrical; surface colored dark and oiled. Used for grating. Similar to Parmesan but not as fine in quality.
This fine American Cheddar was named from its resemblance to the long horn of a popular milking breed of cattle, or just from the Longhorn breed of cow that furnished the makings.
Hard; small; delicate; unique because it's seasoned with pistachio nuts besides salt and pepper. Eaten while quite young, in two-ounce portions that bring a very high price.
Semisoft and tangy dessert cheese. The opposite of Limburger because it has no odor.
Germany and U.S.A.
The same as Breakfast and Frühstück. A Limburger type of eye-opener.
Swiss type; saffron-colored; made in a copper kettle; not as strong as Limburger, or as mild as Emmentaler, yet piquant and aromatic, with a character of its own.
Tiny tin-foiled type of Liederkranz. A mild, bland, would-be Camembert.
Soft; goat's milk; two inches square by one and a half inches thick.
Soft Camembert type, made in the same region, but sold at a cheaper price.
Named for Madrid where it is made.
"Cow cheese" made in Magdeburg.
A term for Parmesan types made between April and September.
Also called Fromage Mou. Soft; white; sharp; spread.
A name for Brie made in summer and inferior to both the winter Gras and spring Migras.
Sheep; cooked; drained; salted; made into forms and put into a brine bath where it stays sometimes a year.
Maile Pener (Fat Cheese)
Sheep; crumbly; open texture and pleasing flavor when ripened.
Semihard; full cream; round; red outside, yellow within. Weight three pounds.
Typical hand cheese, kneaded by hand thoroughly, which makes for quality, pressed into flat cakes by hand, dried for a week, packed in kegs or jars and ripened in the cellar six to eight weeks. As in making bread, the skill in kneading Mainzer makes a worthy craft.
An exceptional variety of the three usual milks mixed together: goat, sheep and cow, flavored with spices and olive oil. A kind of Incanestrato.
A form of Neufchâtel about a half inch by two inches, eaten fresh or ripe.
In season from October to July.
A kind of Venezuelan hand cheese, as its Spanish name translates. (SeeVenezuelan.)
Manor House see Herrgårdsost.
Cheese and butter combined in a small brick of butter with a covering of Mozzarella. This is for slicing—not for cooking—which is unusual for any Italian cheese.
Manur, or Manuri
Sheep or cow's milk heated to boiling, then cooled "until the fingers can be held in it". A mixture of fresh whey and buttermilk is added with the rennet. "The curd is lifted from the whey in a cloth and allowed to drain, when it is kneaded like bread, lightly salted, and dried."
Another name for Fromage Mou, Soft Cheese.
Ewe's milk; hard.
An oily cheese made with oleomargarine.
Soft; cream; small.
Limburger type. About 4½ inches square and 1½ inches thick; weight about a pound. Wrapped in tin foil.
Märkisch, or Märkisch Hand
Soft; smelly; hand type.
Semisoft and semihard, half way between Pont l'Evêque and Limburger. Full flavor, high smell, reddish brown rind, yellow within. Five inches square and 2¼ inches thick; some larger.
Martha Washington Aged Cheese
Made by Kasper of Bear Creek, Wisconsin.
Mascarpone, or Macherone
Soft; white; delicate fresh cream from Lombardy. Usually packed in muslin or gauze bags, a quarter to a half pound.
An early Klondike Cheddar named by its maker, Peter McIntosh, and described as being as yellow as that "Alaskan gold, which brought at times about ounce for ounce over mining-camp counters." The Cheddar Box by Dean Collins.
Pioneer club type of snappy Cheddar in a pot, originally made in Canada, now by Kraft in the U.S A.
Made by the Iowa State College at Ames.
No more distinguished than most skim-milkers.
Made in the Champagne district.
Sharp; aromatic; trade-marked package.
Excellent for a processed cheese. White; flavorsome. Packed in half moons.
Sharp; goat; from the Mentelto mountains
Semisoft; white; creamy; sharp; historic since the time of the Merovingian kings.
Eaten when fresh and unsalted; also when ripened. Soft, ewe's milk.
Season October to June.
Soft; piquant; aromatic.
Midget Salami Provolone
This goes Baby Goudas and Edams one better by being a sort of sausage, too.
White, No. I: Soft; fresh; in small cubes or cylinders; in season only in summer, April to September.
Passe, No. II: Soft but ripened, and in the same forms, but only seasonal in winter, October to March. Similar to Pont l'Evêque and popular for more than a century. It goes specially well with Calvados cider, fresh, hard or distilled.
Name given to spring Brie—midway between fat winter Gras and thin summer Maigre.
Milano, Stracchino di Milano, Fresco, Quardo
Similar to Bel Paese. Yellow, with thin rind. 1½ to 2¾ inches thick, 3 to 6½ pounds.
Milk Mud see Schlickermilch.
A Thousand Flowers—as highly scented as its sentimental name. Yet no cheeses are so freshly fragrant as these flowery Alpine ones.
Robust texture and flavor reminiscent of free-lunch and old-time bars.
Milks that make cheese around the world:
Ass Buffalo Camel Chamois Elephant Goat Human (see Mother's milk) Llama Mare Reindeer Sea cow (Amazonian legend) Sheep Whale (legendary; see Whale Cheese) Yak Zebra Zebu
U.S. pure food laws prohibit cheeses made of unusual or strange animal's milk, such as camel, llama and zebra.
Aromatic with caraway, brought from Germany by early emigrants and successfully imitated.
Name for the Brazilian state of Minas Geraes, where it is made. Semihard; white; round two-pounder; often chalky. The two best brands are one called Primavera, Spring, and another put out by the Swiss professors who teach the art at the Agricultural University in the State Capital, Bello Horizonte.
A good national product known from coast to coast. Besides Blue, Minnesota makes good all-American Brick and Cheddar, natural nationals to be proud of.
in Macedonia; and
Sheep; soft; succulent; and as pleasantly greasy as other sheep cheeses from Greece. It's a by-product of the fabulous Feta.
Made in U.S.A. during World War II. Parmesan-type.
Mohawk Limburger Spread
A brand that comes in one-pound jars.
Similar to Caciocavallo. (See.)
Semihard, similar to Maroilles.
Similar to Gorgonzola.
This little family with a lot of long names is closely related to the Münster tribe, with very distant connections with the mildest branch of the Limburgers.
The Schachtelkäse is named from the wooden boxes in which it is shipped, while the Schlosskäse shows its class by being called Castle Cheese, probably because it is richer than the others, being made of whole milk.
Money made of cheese
In the Chase National Bank collection of moneys of the world there is a specimen of "Cheese money" about which the curator, Farran Zerbee, writes: "A specimen of the so-called 'cheese money' of Northern China, 1850-70, now in the Chase Bank collection, came to me personally some thirty years ago from a woman missionary, who had been located in the field where she said a cake form of condensed milk, and referred to as 'cheese,' was a medium of exchange among the natives. It, like other commodities, particularly compressed tea, was prized as a trading medium in China, in that it had value as nutriment and was sufficiently appreciated by the population as to be exchangeable for other articles of service."
Monk's Head see Tête de Moine.
Soft; salted; rich in flavor.
A mountain cheese.
Austria and Italy
Usually skimmed goat and cow milk mixed. When finished, the rind is often rubbed with olive oil or blackened with soot. It is eaten both fresh, white and sweet, and aged, when it is yellow, granular and sharp, with a characteristic flavor. Mostly used when three to twelve months old, but kept much longer and grated for seasoning. Widely imitated in America.
Montauban de Bretagne, Fromage de
A celebrated cheese of Brittany.
Sour and sometimes sweet milk, made tasty with dried herbs of the Achitteafamily.
An Alpine cheese.
Southeastern France Usually made of all three available milks, cow, goat and sheep; it is semi-hard and blue-veined like the other Roquefort imitations, Gex and Septmoncel. Primitive methods are still used in the making and sometimes the ripening is done by penicillium introduced in moldy bread. Large rounds, eighteen by six to eight inches, weighing twenty-five pounds.
Trappist monk-made Port-Salut.
A fresh cream.
Mont d'or, le, or Mont Dore
Soft; whole milk; originally goat, now cow; made throughout the Rhone Valley. Fat, golden-yellow and "relished by financiers" according to Victor Meusy. Between Brie and Pont l'Evêque but more delicate than either, though not effeminate. Alpin and Riola are similar. The best is still turned out at Mont d'Or, with runners-up in St. Cyr and St. Didier.
A sour-milker made fragrant with herbs added to the curd.
Hard; sharp; perhaps inspired by Montery Jack that's made in California and along the Mexican border.
Whole or partly skimmed milk; soft in quality and large in size, weighing up to 5½ pounds. Notable only for its patriotic tri-color in ripening, with whitish mold that turns blue and has red spots.
Semihard and sharp.
In season from November to July.
A little-known product of Champagne.
In his book about French varieties, Les Fromages, Maurice des Ombiaux sums up the many exotic milks made into cheese and recounts the story of Paul Bert, who served a cheese "white as snow" that was so delicately appetizing it was partaken of in "religious silence." All the guests guessed, but none was right. So the host announced it was made of "lait de femme" and an astounded turophile exclaimed, "Then all of us are cannibals."
Soft; yellow; sharp.
Mountain, Azuldoch see Azuldoch.
Yellow; mellow; mild and porous California Cheddar.
Mouse or Mouse Trap
Common name for young, green, cracked, leathery or rubbery low-grade store cheese fit only to bait traps. When it's aged and sharp, however, the same cheese can be bait for caseophiles.
Soft; water-buffalo milk; moistly fresh and unripened; bland, white cooking cheese put up in balls or big bowl-like cups weighing about a half pound and protected with wax paper. The genuine is made at Cardito, Aversa, Salernitano and in the Mazzoni di Capua. Like Ricotta, this is such a popular cheese all over America that it is imitated widely, and often badly, with a bitter taste.
Mozzarella-Affumicata, also called Scamozza
Semisoft; smooth; white; bland; un-salted. Put up in pear shapes of about one pound, with tan rind, from smoking.
A pet name for a diminutive edition of Mozzarella.
Mrsav see Sir Posny.
German originally, now made from Colmar, Strassburg and Copenhagen to Milwaukee in all sorts of imitations, both good and bad. Semihard; whole milk; yellow inside, brick-red outside; flavor from mild to strong, depending on age and amount of caraway or anise seed added. Best in winter season, from November to April.
Münster is a world-wide classic that doubles for both German and French. Géromé is a standard French type of it, with a little longer season, beginning in April, and a somewhat different flavor from anise seed. Often, instead of putting the seeds inside, a dish of caraway is served with the cheese for those who like to flavor to taste.
In Alsace, Münster is made plain and also under the name of Münster au Cumin because of the caraway.
American imitations are much milder and marketed much younger. They are supposed to blend the taste of Brick and Limburger; maybe they do.
A processed domestic, Gruyère type.
Imitated with goat's milk in Southern Colorado.
Made in all Scandinavian countries and imitated in the U.S.A. A whey cheese, buttery, mild and sweetish with a caramel color all through, instead of the heavy chocolate or dark tobacco shade of Gjetost. Frimost is a local name for it. The American imitations are cylindrical and wrapped in tin foil.